This is the second article of a series dealing with the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 (“Act”). For the first article, see: Part 1 – Charitable IRA Rollovers
The Act retroactively reinstated estate taxes to apply to decedents who died in 2010. However, the Act provided two relief provisions. First, the federal estate tax exemption for 2010 decedents was $5 million. Second, the Act allows executors to elect the carryover basis regime for 2010 decedents if that regime is preferable to the estate tax regime.
We represent several estates that plan to elect the carryover basis regime. The carryover basis regime may result in future income taxes; however income taxes are less than estate taxes. Most estates of $10 million or more will elect the carryover basis regime. This is because the estate tax regime would result in estate taxes, either now or upon the death of the surviving spouse. Estates of unmarried decedents with more than $5 million will generally elect the carryover basis regime.
Estates worth $5 million or less will stay with the estate tax regime. They will not owe any federal estate taxes and all assets owned by the estate will receive a stepped-up basis.
The Executors for married decedents whose estates were between $5 and $10 million will have to analyze the two regimes. When the available basis step-up of $4.3 million is enough to increase the basis of all assets to date of death value, the estate should elect the carryover basis regime. When the basis step-up is not enough to eliminate all pre-death gains, the executor will need to analyze whether future income taxes to be incurred on pre-mortem appreciation will be more than future estate taxes to be incurred upon the death of the surviving spouse.
The analysis of future income taxes and future estate taxes requires a crystal ball. Income taxes might be avoided if the surviving spouse gives appreciated assets to charity or holds them until death. Estate taxes might be avoided if the surviving spouse makes sufficient gifts or if the $5 million federal estate tax exemption is extended until the year of the spouse’s death.
The Act did not specify how or when to make the election to be subject to the carryover basis regime. The Act specified that the Form 706 for decedents subject to the estate tax regime does not need to be filed until September 17, 2011. I expect guidance from the IRS clarifying that the carryover basis election can also be made as late as September 17, 2011.