A recent article discussed the use of Inter Vivos Marital Trusts to reduce estate taxes. These trusts can also be used to provide asset protection from future creditors. When the objective is asset protection, the trust is designed differently.
One spouse transfers property to a trust for the benefit of the other spouse. If the donee spouse predeceases the donor spouse, the donor spouse becomes the beneficiary of the trust. The donor spouse’s retention of a successor beneficial interest in the trust represents the key distinction of a marital trust that is used for asset protection rather than reducing estate taxes.
This type of trust has always been exempt from future creditors during the donee spouse’s lifetime because it is a third party created spendthrift trust. When the donor spouse becomes the beneficiary, the trust has traditionally been available to all creditors of the donor spouse since the transfer was made to a trust of which the donor is a beneficiary.
A new Tennessee law will make these trusts exempt from the donor spouse’s future creditors after July 1, 2010. This means that one spouse can transfer substantially all of his or her assets to a trust and protect the assets from future creditors of both spouses.
Inter Vivos Marital Trusts may not be used to avoid the donor’s obligations to creditors that already exist at the time of the transfer to the trust. If the donor spouse does not retain sufficient assets to pay existing creditors, the preexisting creditors can attack the trust as a fraudulent conveyance.
Another potential benefit of an Inter Vivos Marital Trust is to make sure that the donee spouse has sufficient assets to utilize his or her federal estate tax exemption and Tennessee inheritance tax exemption. This will reduce estate taxes upon the surviving spouse’s death. No gift taxes will be payable if the donor spouse files timely federal and Tennessee gift tax returns which make a QTIP election.
For federal income tax purposes, the donor spouse will be taxed on all of the taxable income of the trust, including capital gains, during his or her lifetime. The donee spouse will be taxable on the ordinary income of the trust following the death of the donor spouse and may be taxed on some or all of the capital gains of the trust.